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A t-test is a type of statistical analysis used to compare the averages of two groups and determine whether the differences between them are more likely to arise from random chance. The two groups may be independent; that is, a control group and experimental group, or they can be dependent, wherein a single group yields pretreatment and posttreatment scores.

Target/Initial Population

The target/initial population refers to all events for evaluation by a specific performance measure involving patients who share a common set of specified characteristics within a specific measurement set to which a given measure belongs. Measured entities should draw all patients/episodes (e.g., as numerator, as denominator) from the target/initial population.

Test-retest Reliability Testing

Test-retest reliability testing assesses the extent to which a survey or measurement instrument elicits the same response from the same respondent across short intervals of time.

Text Blob

A BLOB is a binary large object that can hold a variable amount of data. The four BLOB types are TINYBLOB, BLOB, MEDIUMBLOB, and LONGBLOB. These differ only in the maximum length of the values they can hold. The four TEXT types are TINYTEXT, TEXT, MEDIUMTEXT, and LONGTEXT. MySQL. (2023, June). MySQL 8.0 Reference Manual, 11.3.4 The BLOB and TEXT types. Retrieved November 1, 2023, from

Time Interval

The time interval is the time frame used to determine cases for inclusion in the denominator, numerator, or exclusion. The time interval includes an index event and period of time.


Topped-out, sometimes referred to as topped off, is when measure’s performance is so high and unvarying that measured entities can no longer make meaningful distinctions and improvements in performance.