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Efficiency Measure

An efficiency measure is the cost of care (inputs to the health system in the form of expenditures and other resources) associated with a specified level of health outcome.

Electronic Clinical Quality Measure (eCQM)

An electronic clinical quality measure (eCQM) is a measure specified in a standard electronic format that uses data electronically extracted from electronic health records and/or health information technology systems to measure the quality of health care provided. Electronic Clinical Quality Improvement Resource Center. (n.d.) Glossary. Retrieved May 22, 2024, from

Electronic Health Record (EHR)

The electronic health record is also known as the electronic patient record, electronic medical record, or computerized patient record. As defined by the International Social Security Association, an EHR is a “longitudinal electronic record of patient health information generated by one or more encounters in any care delivery setting. Included in this information are patient demographics, progress notes, problems, medications, vital signs, past medical history, immunizations, laboratory data, diagnoses and treatment, medications, allergies, immunizations as well as radiology images and laboratory results.” International Social Security Association. (n.d.). Information and communication technology - Guideline 91. electronic health record system. Retrieved November 1, 2023, from

Empirical Evidence

Empirical evidence is the data or information resulting from studies and analyses of the data elements and/or scores for a measure as specified, whether unpublished or published.


An encounter, as defined by the ASTM International is “(1) an instance of direct provider/practitioner to patient interaction, regardless of the setting, between a patient and a practitioner vested with primary responsibility for diagnosing, evaluating or treating the patient’s condition, or both, or providing social worker services; and (2) a contact between a patient and a practitioner who has primary responsibility for assessing and treating the patient at a given contact, exercising independent judgment.” Encounter serves as a focal point linking clinical, administrative, and financial information. Encounters occur in many settings—ambulatory care, inpatient care, emergency care, home health care, field and virtual (telemedicine).

Environmental Scan

An environmental scan is the process of systematically reviewing and interpreting data to identify issues and opportunities that will influence prioritization of current or future plans.


Equity is ‘‘the consistent and systematic fair, just, and impartial treatment of all individuals, including individuals who belong to underserved communities that have been denied such treatment, such as Black, Latino, and Indigenous and Native American persons, Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders and other persons of color; members of religious minorities; lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ+) persons; persons with disabilities; persons who live in rural areas; and persons otherwise adversely affected by persistent poverty or inequality.’’ (Executive Order 13985, 2021)

Expert Consensus

Expert consensus is the recommendations formulated by one of several formal consensus development methods such as consensus development conference, Delphi method, and nominal group technique.